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The following is a summary of studies conducted on the ingredients included in Lungshield Immune+.

Please familiarize yourself with the studies in order for you to understand what Lungshield Immune+ is and what it does.

 

Vitamin A

Vitamin A plays a vital role in maintaining the body’s natural defences. This includes the mucus barriers in the eyes, lungs, gut and genitals. These barriers help trap and eliminate foreign substances such as allergens, pathogens and debris. Vitamin A also helps maintain epithelial cells. Epithelial cells are cells on the surfaces of your body, such as your skin, blood vessels, urinary tract and organs. This serves as a barrier and protects against foreign substances entering the body, blood or organs.

Vitamin A is also involved in the production of white blood cells. Which is part of the body’s immune system. They help the body fight infection and other diseases.

Vitamin A is essential for retinal function (vision)

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminA-HealthProfessional/

https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-A

 

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Vitamin B1 is required both by the nerve cells and by other supporting cells in the nervous system. Vitamin B1 is also involved with the development of the myelin sheath. This is an insulating layer that forms around the nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord. This means Vitamin B1 plays a key role in the maintenance of brain function.

Vitamin B1 is vital to the function of the cardiovascular system, some studies have shown that Vitamin B1 supplementation has improved cardiac function in people with heart failure. Vitamin B1 deficiency can cause congestive heart failure.

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Thiamin-HealthProfessional/

https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/supplement/vitamin-b1-thiamine

 

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Pyridoxine plays a role in haemoglobin production, haemoglobin is a protein that delivers oxygen to cells in the body.

Pyridoxine helps create neurotransmitters, which are important chemical messengers in the brain. It also helps regulate energy use in the brain

Pyridoxine also serves as a co-enzyme for more than 100 enzymes playing a major role in the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids.

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-b6/

 

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms include:  fatigue, vision loss, mental problems like depression and nerve problems like numbness or tingling. Vitamin B12 deficiency is more common in the elderly with 1 in 10 people aged over 75 affected. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also lead to Anemia as Vitamin B12 is essentials in Red Blood Cell production. Anemia can lead to Tachycardia (irregular heartbeat), shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue and chest pain.  The body does not produce Vitamin B12 this is why it is necessary to get this nutrient through your diet or as a health supplement.

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient critical for the formation of mature erythrocytes, synthesis of both DNA and RNA and myelin production in the spinal cord.

https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-b12/#:~:text=Vitamin%20B12%20is%20needed%20to,B12%20into%20its%20free%20form.

https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=85&ContentID=P00080

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3257642/

 

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Studies have shown that Vitamin C stimulate the immune system by enhancing T-cell proliferation in response to an infection.  Vitamin C also supports various cellular functions in both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infection. In turn infections significantly impact Vitamin C levels due to increased inflammation and metabolic requirements. This shows that Vitamin C supplementation can both prevent and treat respiratory tract infections.

Vitamin C also acts as an antioxidant that protects the body against free radicals.

Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine and certain neurotransmitters. Collagen is an essential component of connective tissue, which plays a vital role in wound healing.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707683/#:~:text=Role%20of%20vitamin%20C%20in%20immune%20defense.,skin%20%5B36%2C37%5D

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/

 

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D deficiency affects almost 50% of the population worldwide. An estimated 1 billion people worldwide, across all ethnicities and age groups, have a vitamin D deficiency.  Vitamin D deficiency normally presents with bone pain and muscle weakness. However, for many people, the symptoms are subtle. Yet, even without symptoms, too little vitamin D can pose health risks. Low blood levels of the vitamin have been associated with the following: Increased risk for cardiovascular disease, Cognitive impairment and severe asthma in children

Vitamin D Receptors is present all over the body including in antigen-presenting cells, with known direct effects on innate and adaptive immunity. Vitamin D decreases cell proliferation and increases cell differentiation, stops the growth of new blood vessels, and has significant anti-inflammatory effects. New studies carried out by The University of Western Australia have found that Vitamin D deficiency correlates to poor respiratory functioning. Researchers’ measured serum Vitamin D levels, lung function and respiratory symptoms in more than 5000 patients and found that low levels of Vitamin D were associated with respiratory illness such as asthma and bronchitis. Other studies have found that the severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) symptoms can be reduced with Vitamin D supplementation

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-01-vitamin-d-important-respiratory-health.html

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21419273

https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/48/suppl_60/PA4141

 

Echinacea Extract 4:1

Echinacea is a medicinal herb with immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, especially in the alleviation of cold and flu symptoms.

Echinacea is loaded with antioxidants which help the body combat oxidative stress

Multiple studies have shown that echinacea can lower the risk of developing colds by more than 50%

Echinacea is also shown to shorten the duration of cold and flu symptoms

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441164/

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/echinacea#antioxidants

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23195946/

 

Ginger Root Extract 4:1

Ginger has a load of heath benefits.

Ginger is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties.

Some of the symptoms associated with the flu include: muscle pain, nausea and vomiting ginger has been proven to alleviate these symptoms.

Ginger has also shown to improve cognitive function, posses anticarcinogenic activities and play a protective role in cardiovascular function

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92775/

 

Black Elderberry Extract

Elderberries are fruit of the Sambucus tree. Elderberries contain certain compounds that have a beneficial impact on health. Elderberries are high in Vitamin C and dietary fibre. Elderberries also a good source of phenolic acids, which are potent antioxidants, and flavanols like quercetin. Quercetin is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties

Some studies have shown that black elderberry extract can be used as prophylaxis against colds and flu. Other studies have shown that black elderberry extract decreases the severity and duration of cold and flu symptoms.

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323288#about

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30670267/

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/elderberry

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/quercetin#_noHeaderPrefixedContent

 

Magnesium Citrate

Magnesium is required for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. It also contributes to the structure development of bone and is required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA and the Glutathione. Magnesium also plays a role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ion across cell membranes, a process that is important to nerve impulse conduction, muscle contraction and normal heart rhythm.

https://nccih.nih.gov/research/results/spotlight/021110.htm

https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/

 

Zinc Gluconate

Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in numerous processes in the body, including; DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, cell signalling, apoptosis, and cell invasion.  Studies have shown that zinc has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Some clinical trials have shown that Zinc can reduce the duration of cold symptoms. Other studies have shown that Zinc decrease airway inflammation and hyper responsiveness to other allergens

https://www.who.int/elena/titles/bbc/zinc_pneumonia_children/en/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3250936/

 

Green Tea Extract

Green tea extract is high in antioxidants called catechins. Catechins can promote heart health by reducing blood pressure.

Green tea extract is also rich in caffeine which is a natural stimulant. It helps people stay awake and stave of tiredness. Caffeine can also improve mood and brain function.

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-is-caffeine

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/10-benefits-of-green-tea-extract#_noHeaderPrefixedContent

 

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)

Alpha Lipoic Acid plays a major role in digestion, absorption and creation of energy. It helps enzymes turn nutrients into energy.

ALA acts as a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. Studies have shown that heart and lung failure can be directly linked to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress naturally occurs with ageing and some studies have shown that ALA can reduce the amount of oxidative stress during ageing thereby reducing the risk of heart and lung disease

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/590363/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031852/

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